One might naively imagine that Darwin’s theory of the “origin of species” to be “only” about animals and plants, not human affairs, and therefore presume its irrelevance for politics. But what are species? The reason Darwin’s classic is entitled Origin of Species and not Origin of the Species is because his argument contradicted the essentialist belief that a specific, finite, and unchanging set of categories of kinds had been primordially established. Instead, the theory contends, “species” are analytic categories invented by observers to correspond with stabilized patterns of exhibited characteristics. They are no different in ontological status than “varieties” within them, which are always candidates for being reclassified as species. These categories are, in essence, institutionalized ways of imagining the world. They are institutionalizations of difference that, although neither primordial nor permanent, exert influence on the futures the world can take—both the world of science and the world science seeks to understand. In other words, “species” are “institutions”: crystallized boundaries among “kinds”, constructed as boundaries that interrupt fields of vast and complex patterns of variation. These institutionalized distinctions then operate with consequences beyond the arbitrariness of their location and history to shape, via rules (constraints on interactions), prospects for future kinds of change.
Jay follows this up with an interesting analogy to political regime types–the “species” that political scientists study:
Political regime types are the species of comparative politics. They are “analytic categories invented by observers to correspond with stabilized patterns of exhibited characteristics.” In short, they are institutionalized ways of thinking about political institutions. The patterns they describe may be real, but they are not essential. They’re not the natural contours of the moon’s surface; they’re the faces we sometimes see in them.
I have no comment other than that I think Jay is right, and it reminds me of a Robert Sapolsky lecture on the dangers of categorical thinking. And yes, Sapolsky is a biologist. We’ll go right to the best part (19:40-22:05) but the whole lecture is worth watching: